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Silicon Nitride structures and properties

Crystal structure of Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 has two sort of crystal structure: α& alpha;- Si3N4 is granular crystal and also β& beta; -Si3N4 is needle crystal. Both of them are three-dimensional networks made up of common vertices of [SN4] tetrahedron as well as belong to hexagonal system. The distinction in between them hinges on the order of [SiN4] tetrahedral layers. The β & beta; phase is formed by the overlap of hexagonal ring layers composed of six almost entirely symmetrical [SN4] tetrahedrons in the c-axis direction, while the α & alpha; phase is formed by two layers of tangible transformation and different non-hexagonal ring layers. α & alpha; stage can dissolve oxygen in the range of crystal framework, and also the internal strain of α & alpha; stage is bigger than that of β & beta; stage, so the totally free energy is higher than that of β & beta; phase. From the point of view of thermodynamics, the β & beta; stage is extra stable at greater temperature. The & alpha; phase has reduced symmetry and also is simple to develop. At the temperature level of about 1500 ℃, the α & alpha; phase undertakes a reconstruction change and is transformed into β & beta; phase. This improvement is irreparable, as well as the existence of some procedure problems and also top quality is extra useful to the improvement from α & alpha; phase to & beta; stage. & alpha;-Si3N4 is developed when the temperature level βis lower than 1350 ℃, and & beta;-Si3N4 can be directly prepared at a temperature level

more than 1500 ℃. Silicon Nitride properties The molecular formula of silicon nitride is Si3N4, of which Si make up 60.06% as well as dint N represent 39.94%. There is a strong covalent bond between Si as well as N (of which the ion bond accounts for only 30%), so the Si3N4 has high solidity (Morse firmness 9), high melting factor and steady framework.
The Si-N in silicon nitride crystal is mainly covalent bond, as well as the bonding strength is high, so it has a large elastic modulus (4.7 × & times; 105kg/cm2). The coefficient of thermal growth is reduced, however the thermal conductivity is big, so this material is not easy to generate thermal stress and anxiety, so it has good thermal shock resistance and also excellent thermal shock resistance. It has sturdiness, high mechanical stamina at heat and small contortion at high temperature. (the heat deformation of silicon nitride ceramic with 2.5 g/cm3 thickness is 0.5% at 1200 × & times; 1000h ℃ as well as 23 × & times; 7kg/cm2 load). Not worn down by numerous metals, as a result of the formation of a silicon dioxide layer, excellent oxidation resistance as well as excellent electric insulation.

Silicon nitride has no melting factor and sublimates and also disintegrates at 1900 ℃ under atmospheric pressure. The certain heat is 711.8 J/ kg ℃. The microhardness of α & alpha; phase and & beta; stage is 10 ~ 16GPa and 24.5 ~ 32.65 Grade point average specifically. Since it is a strong covalent bond substance, no fluid stage will certainly be developed listed below its disintegration temperature (regarding 1900 ℃), so silicon nitride products can be sintered with the assistance of oxide ingredients. The oxide products that promote sintering are generally Y2O3, Al2O3, etc, and also the high enhancement quantity can reach 20%. The response principle is that the SiO2 oxide movie based on the surface of silicon nitride bits responds with the included oxide to create fluid phase and penetrate at the grain limit to make certain high diffusion capability throughout material migration.

Chemical Security of Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 is a thermodynamically stable substance. Silicon nitride ceramics can be consumed to 1400 ℃ in oxidation atmosphere as well as 1850 ℃ in neutral or minimizing environment. Actually, the oxidation reaction of Si3N4 occurs above 800C:
Si3N4 +3 O2=3SiO2+N2.

The weight of the example boosted as well as a thick silica safety layer was slowly based on the surface, which protected against the additional oxidation of Si3N4. The weight gain was not noticeable until the temperature level was over 1600 ℃. Yet in the damp ambience, Si3N4 is extremely simple to oxidize, and the surface starts to oxidize at 200 ℃, which is about twice as rapid as that in completely dry air. The oxidation activation energy of Si3N4 powder in water vapor is obviously less than that in oxygen and air. The reason is that water vapor can react with Si3N4 through amorphous SiO2 films:
Si3N4 +6 WATER=3SiO2+NH3.

Silicon nitride is secure to most metal remedies, devoid of rust as well as infiltration, such as Al, Sn, Pb, Bi, Ga, Zn, Cd, Au, Ag and so on. Nonetheless, for Cu solution, it is not eroded just in vacuum cleaner or inert atmosphere; Mg can react weakly with Si3N4; silicon solution can wet Si3N4 and also deteriorate a little; shift component option can strongly wet Si3N4 as well as kind silicide with Si to swiftly break down silicon nitride and getaway N2 at the same time. Si3N4 is secure to alloy services such as brass, difficult aluminum as well as nickel silver, and also has good deterioration resistance to cast iron and also medium carbon steel, however it is not resistant to Ni-Cr alloy and stainless steel.

Besides liquified NaOH and HF, silicon nitride has excellent chemical rust resistance. However the majority of the molten antacid as well as salt can interact with Si3N4 to decay it.

Silicon Nitride made use of in Refractories.
Silicon nitride porcelains are called encouraging heat structural products because of their exceptional high temperature residential properties, such as high temperature toughness, great wear resistance and rust resistance. Because of the solid covalent bond and also low diffusion coefficient at high temperature, the manufacture of Si3N4 ceramics have to depend on high temperature, high pressure and sintering agent, and the cost is expensive, or else it is challenging to create excellent quality silicon nitride materials. These constraints of manufacturing costs and devices are challenging to approve in the metallurgical market, so the research study in the field of refractories begins fairly late, and also the research study is not thorough. Numerous concepts originate from porcelains, however there is not much development. In the past, silicon nitride normally existed in the type of bonding stage in refractories. Via nitriding and shooting of steel Si, accumulations such as diamond or silicon carbide were combined with great powder, so regarding achieve the purpose of integrating refractory materials. Ceramic shed plate is silicon carbide accumulation and also component of great powder. Silicon nitride is formed by nitriding metal Si to create silicon nitride. Silicon carbide is incorporated to create silicon nitride bound silicon carbide material, which is used in blast heater body and other components, to ensure that the performance of the product has been significantly boosted. Compared to the clay bonded silicon carbide dropped plate, the heat efficiency of the material is excellent, which resolves the issue of bulging failing triggered by the oxidation of silicon carbide when the clay bound silicon carbide dropped plate is used.

Silicon nitride Rate
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